# Papal election, 1118

Papal election January 1118 | |
---|---|

Coat of arms during the vacancy of the Holy See | |

Dates and location | |

24 January 1118 Palatine Hill, Rome | |

Key officials | |

Dean | Crescenzio |

Protopriest | Boniface |

Protodeacon | Giovanni Coniulo |

Elected Pope | |

Giovanni Coniulo(Name taken: Gelasius II) | |

The **Papal election of 1118** saw the election of Pope Gelasius II as the successor of Pope Paschal II, who died January 21, 1118 in Rome after an 18-year pontificate.

## List of Cardinal-electors

The Papal bull *In nomine Domini* issued by Pope Nicholas II in 1059, stated that on the death of the incumbent pope, the cardinal-bishops should confer among themselves as to a candidate; when a candidate has been deduced the cardinal-bishops and all other cardinals are to proceed to an election.^{[1]}

Data on the number and composition of the College of Cardinals in January 1118, are very uncertain. The primary source was written over a dozen years later by Pandulf of Pisa, cardinal-priest of Santi Cosma e Damiano.^{[2]} It claimed that the election was attended by 49 cardinals (four bishops, 27 priests and 18 deacons), however, mentions the names of only 35 of them (four bishops, 20 priests and 11 deacons, including the elect).^{[3]}According to Pandulf, one cardinal-priest, Hugh of Santi Apostoli, was absent, to which must be added two other cardinals bishops, which Pandulf in the context of the election, although does not mention, but whose existence and dignity are documented in no uncertain terms. The credibility of the relationship Pandulf, including a list of electors, is challenged by modern historians; indicates on its polemical nature of the atmosphere resulting from the schism Antipope Anacletus II (1130-1138)^{[4]} Critical analysis of the sources revealed that:^{[5]}

- In January 1118 the Cardinals priests and deacons, cardinals was less than clear from the relationship Pandulf
^{[6]} - Several cardinals mentioned by Pandulf were elevated by later popes
^{[7]}

In January 1118, the College of Cardinals had a population of probably only 41 members, including six bishops, 20 priests and 15 deacons, of which 36 (4, 18 and 14) participated in the election:

- Crescenzio (nominated cardinal in 1100
^{[8]}) - Cardinal-bishop of Sabina; Primate of the Holy College of Cardinals - Pietro Senex (1102) - Cardinal-bishop of Porto
- Lamberto (1116) - Cardinal-bishop of Ostia
- Witalis (1111) - Cardinal-bishop of Albano
- Boniface (1100) - Cardinal-Priest of S. Marco; Cardinal-protopriest of the College of Cardinals
- Benedict (1102) - Cardinal-Priest of S. Pietro in Vincoli
- Anastasio (1102) - Cardinal-Priest of S. Clemente
- Divizzo (1106) - Cardinal-Priest of Ss. Silvestro e Martino
- Jan (1106) - Cardinal-Priest of S. Cecilia
- Teobald (1111) - Cardinal-Priest of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo
- Rainier (1111) - Cardinal-Priest of Ss. Marcellino e Pietro
- Corrado Demetri (1114) - Cardinal-Priest of S. Pudenziana
- Gregory (1115) - Cardinal-Priest of S. Prisca
- Desiderio (1115) - Cardinal-Priest of S. Prassede
- Deusdedit (1116) - Cardinal-Priest of S. Lorenzo in Damaso
- Gregorio Sienense (1116) - Cardinal-Priest of S. Lorenzo in Lucina
- Giovanni, O.S.B. Cas. (1116) - Cardinal-Priest of S. Eusebio
- Guido, O.S.B. (1116) - Cardinal-Priest of S. Balbina
- Giovanni Cremense (1116) - Cardinal-Priest of S. Crisogono
- Sasso de Anagni (1116) - cardinal-priest. S. Stefano al Monte Celio
- Pietro Pisano (1113) - Cardinal-Priest of S. Susanna
- Amico, O.S.B. Cas. (1117) - Cardinal-Priest of Ss. Nereo ed Achilleo; Abbot of S. Vincenzo al Volturno
- Giovanni Coniulo, O.S.B. Cas. (1088) - Cardinal-Deacon of S. Maria in Cosmedin; Cardinal-protodeacon of the College of Cardinals
- Gregorio, OSB (1108) - Cardinal-Deacon of S. Eustachio
- Romoaldo (1109) - Cardinal-Deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata
- Gregorio Gaetano (1109) - Cardinal-Deacon of S. Lucia in Septisolio
- Aldo da Ferentino (1109) - cardinal-deacon of Ss. Sergio e Bacco
- Teobaldo Boccapecora (1109) - Cardinal-Deacon of S. Maria Nuova
- Roscemanno, O.S.B.Cas. (1112) - Cardinal-Deacon of S. Giorgio in Velabro
- Pietro Pierleoni, OSBCluny (1113) - cardinal-deacon of Ss. Cosma e Damiano
- Oderisio di Sangro, O.S.B.Cas. (1112) - cardinal-deacon of S. Agata
- Comes (1113) - cardinal-deacon of S. Maria in Aquiro
- Gregorio Papareschi (1116) - cardinal-deacon of S. Angelo in Pescheria
- Crisogono (1117) - cardinal-deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere
- Enrico de Mazara (1117) - cardinal-deacon of S. Teodoro; Dean Mazara del Vallo
- Crescenzio di Anagni (1117) - cardinal-deacon

Two subdeacons were in attendance, Nicholas, Provost of the Choir School and Amico O.S.B. (Cluny), Abbot of Saint Lawrence outside the Walls^{[9]}

### Absent

It is presumed that two cardinal-priests, two cardinal-bishops and a cardinal-deacon were absent:

- Giovanni Marsicano, O.S.B. (1100) - Cardinal-bishop of Tusculum
^{[10]} - Kuno von Urach (1107) - Cardinal-bishop of Palestrina; papal legate in France
^{[10]} - Boso (1109) - Cardinal-priest of S. Anastasia; papal legate in Spain
^{[10]} - Ugone d'Alatri (1116) - Cardinal-priest of Santi Dodici Apostoli; Governor Monte Circeo
^{[10]} - Giovanni, O.S.B. (1073) - Cardinal-deacon of Santa Maria in Domnica; Abbot of Subiaco
^{[11]}

Giovanni Subiaco was a nominee Gregory VII, the others — Paschal II.

## The choice of Gelasius II

Paschal II throughout his papacy fought the investiture controversy of Emperor Henry V who supported the Roman aristocracy. After his death, the Cardinals took refuge in a Benedictine monastery on the Palatine Hill fearing supporters of the emperor. On January 24, three days after the customary prayers and devotions, the electors unanimously chose Giovanni Cardinal Coniulo from Gaeta, cardinal-deacon of Santa Maria in Cosmedin and Chancellor of the Holy See, on election he adopted the papal name Gelasius II.

Shortly after his election the pope was arrested by the Roman baron Cenzio II Frangipani, a supporter of the emperor. Despite being freed by a popular uprising in March, the pope fled from Rome to France, where he remained until his death at the beginning of the following year. During this time, the emperor appointed Archbishop Maurice Burdinusa Braga, who took the name Gregory VIII, as antipope.

## References

- ↑ Fanning, W. (1911). "Pope Nicholas II".
*The Catholic Encyclopaedia*. Robert Appleton Company. ISBN 0840731752. External link in`|chapter=`

(help) - ↑ Gelasius II - Vita Operaque (Auctore Pandulpho Aletrino Familiari)
- ↑ Missing in Pandulf relationship cardinals tried to make the names of the sixteenth century historian Alphonso Chacón (1530/40-1599) in his posthumously published work,
*Vitae et res gestae Pontificum Romanorum et SRE Cardinalium*, but edu / ~ Mirandas / conclave-xii.htm # 1118 added by the cardinals or were appointed only by later popes (Ugo Lectifredo of S. Vitale, Romano S. Maria in Portico, Pietro S. Adriano), or their existence there is no reliable way documented (Giovanni S. Callisto, Pietro Vuilhelmus S. Sabina, Ducale of Ss. IV Coronati, Crisostomo of S. Ciriaco, Amico of Ss. Vito e Modesto), and also two cardinals were listed twice (Teobaldo Boccapecora as a deacon of S. Maria Nuova, and as a priest of S. Anastasia, in fact, has been promoted from the first rank to second in 1123, and as a priest Divizzo Ss. Silvestro Martino and as bishop of Tusculum, the promotion of the first rank to the second took place in 1121) - ↑ Pandulf was a supporter of Anacletus II, who made him a cardinal. More on this topic Robinson, p 63, and Furst, p 69
- ↑ Klewitz, pp. 100-101, 119-134; Furst, pp. 69-80; Hulse,
*passim*, esp. pp. 63-64. - ↑ Klewitz gives the number of 23 priests and 16 deacons; Furst -18 presbyters and deacons 12; article presents a list according to the analysis Hulse, pp. 63-64.
- ↑ From Callistus II nominated will receive Amico of S. Croce, Gerardo S. Prisca and Sigizo of S. Sisto, perhaps Gregorio S. Eustachio, although in the latter case it is unlikely. Stefano S. Lucia in Silice was appointed only by Honorius II. Cardinal S. Prisca was then Gregorio and Gerardo, although the
*vacancy*is not completely excluded. In addition, Teobaldo Boccapeccora was mentioned by Pandulf as cardinal-priest of S. Anastasia, even though at the time he was still a deacon of S. Maria Nuova (elevated in 1121/22). Klewitz, with the exception of the last case, approved the names given by Pandulf - ↑ appointment dates are approximate. Primary source for these dates are approximate Huls, pp. 84-86
- ↑ Pandulf mistakenly marked Amico as Cardinal-priest of Santa Croce in Gerusalemme. He received this honor only from Callistus II. Perhaps among the lower clergy was also Sigizo, later cardinal-priest of San Sisto, whose Pandulf listed as an elector of the Cardinals-priests
- 1 2 3 4 Klewitz, p 100
- ↑ Huls, p 233

## Bibliography

- H. W. Klewitz,
*Reformpapsttum und Kardinalkolleg*, Darmstadt 1957 - CG Furst,
*Kennen Wir die Wahlern Gelsius' II?*, In:*Festschrift Karl Pivec. Zum 60 Geburtstag von gewidmet Kollegen*, edited by Anton Haidacher, Hans Eberhard Mayer, ed. Sprachwissenschaftliches Institut der Leopold-Franzens-Universität, 1966, pp. 69–80 - I. S. Robinson,
*The Papacy 1073-1198. Continuity and Innovations*, Cambridge University Press 1990 - R. Huls,
*Kardinal, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130*, Tübingen 1977

## External links

- ~ Mirandas / conclave-xii.htm # 1118 List of Participants election in 1118 by Alfonso Chacón,
*Vitae et res gestae Pontificum Romanorum et SRE Cardinalium*from 1677 - Gelasius II - Vita Operaque
- Catholic Encyclopedia